The theme that I have based my blog around is typography. Due to being interested in a career in graphic design, I am hugely influenced by typography, and all of the different ways it can be used within art, media and technology. My blog looks into many well-known typographers, their work and their inspirations, as well as some of my own work and illustrations that can be used within publications. Typography is the foundation of many forms of media and without it many pieces within art and publications would be lacking key components that allows them to interact with the user. My blog will display the work of my most admired typographers, their work style and techniques, as well as how they have immersed themselves into the art world. The list of typographers would include Christopher Wool, Craig Ward, Stefan Sagmeister, Wim Crouwel and David Carson. Similarly, the structural formatting and layout that can be used within typography hugely interests me, and this style of design can be seen in the work of many typographers, in particular David Carson. Carson broke free from the rules of classical graphic design and tried techniques with fonts that had never been attempted before, purposely mixing and distortingthem. He invented new typographical and layout techniques, which helped to lead him to create his distinctive look. This style of work is particularly interesting to me as it shows the variety of ways typography can be manipulated or changed into something new, allowing people to create their own visions and techniques, similar to that of David Carson’s work. Similarly, the structural layout of this website would therefore display all of these artists work, as well as pointing out similarility within different pieces, as well as contrasting techniques used on the typographic work.
David Carson was born September 8, 1955, and is an American graphic designer, art director and surfer. Carson is best known and recognized for his innovative magazine design, and use of experimental typography. He was the art director for the magazine Ray Gun, in which he employed much of the typographic and layout style for which he is known. In particular, his widely imitated aesthetic defined the so-called "grunge typography" era.
Carson lead to instant success once he became the art director of Transworld Skateboarding magazine in 1984, and remained there until 1988, helping to give the magazine a distinctive look. By the end of his time at the magazine he had started to develop his signature style, using "dirty" type and non-mainstream photographic techniques.
Similarly, Carson was also the art director of a spinoff magazine, Transworld Snowboarding, which began publishing in 1987.
Steve and Debbee Pezman, publishers of Surfer magazine, and later the Surfers Journal, employed Carson to design Beach Culture, a quarterly publication that evolved out of a to-the-trade annual supplement. Though only six quarterly issues were produced, the tabloid-size venue edited by author Neil Fineman, allowed Carson to make his first significant impact on the world of graphic design and typography. His ideas were called innovative even by those that were not fond of his work, in which legibility often relied on readers' strict attention. For one feature on a blind surfer, Carson opened with a twopage spread covered in black, an extremely bold aesthetic move during that time. After Beach Culture, Carson re designed Surfer magazine and art directed and designed it for the next 2 years, before starting the famous Ray gun Magazine for 3 years. Carson then relocated his studio to New York City, where he still works today.
Christopher Wool was born 1955, in Boston and is an American artist. Since the 1980s, Wool's art has incorporated issues surrounding post-conceptual ideas, both striking and aesthetically pleasing. He now lives and works in New York City and Marfa, Texas, together with his wife and fellow painter Charline von Heyl.
Wool is best known for his paintings of large, black, stenciled letters on white canvases. He began to create word paintings in the late 1980s, reportedly after having seen grafﬁti on a brand new white truck, a strong inﬂuence you can clearly see in his work today. Using a system of alliteration, with the words often broken up by a grid system, or with the vowels removed, as in ‘TRBL’ or ‘DRNK’, Wool’s word paintings often demand reading aloud to make sense. Similarly, his paintings stand out to the viewers as they demand attention within a space, due to their scale and visual complexity.
At 303 Gallery in 1988, Wool and fellow artist Robert Gober presented a collaborative exhibition and installation which included Wool's seminal text-based painting. The work features words from a famous line in Francis Ford Coppola's ﬁlm Apocalypse Now, based on the Joseph Conrad novel Heart of Darkness. From the early 1990s through the present, the silkscreen has been a primary tool in Wool’s practice. In his abstract paintings Wool brings together ﬁgures and the disﬁgured, drawing and painting, spontaneous impulses and well thought-out ideas. This was again a technique that Wool had developed over time, as well as being one of the ﬁrst to experiment with it in relation to graphic design and typography. He draws lines on the canvas with a spray gun and then, directly after, wipes them out again with a rag to give a new picture in which clear lines have to stand their own against smeared surfaces.
Craig Ward is a British born Designer and Creative Director, currently based in New York. He is known as an artist, sometime author and contributor to several industry journals, he is also primarily known for his successful typographic work.
Many have also praised Ward’s work saying "Craig Ward has established himself as one of the most important typographers on the scene today.” as well as his profound awareness of words, creating an air of curiosity on how he begins to create his work. In addition, after being a main contributor to several different industry journals, including Creative Review and Computer Arts, his work displays the differences and limitations within photography illustration and typography. Over the last 10 years he has worked with some of the highest proﬁle clients across the advertising, publishing, music and fashion industries.
Ward has won many awards, amongst other agency credits, include ADC Young Gun (2008), recipient of the Type Directors Club Certiﬁcate of Typographic Excellence (2009, 2014, 2015, 2016) and the Communication Arts Award of Excellence (2014, 2015). Similarly, Ward is a regular public speaker, his work has also been shown, awarded and documented in countless books, magazines and exhibitions in cities such as London, Paris, New York, Los Angeles, Chicago and more. Moreover, Craig Ward continues even today, to explore the notion of the word as an image, a key technique within successful typographic work, constantly exploring new ways to create type and bring words to life.
Stefan Sagmeister was born August 6, 1962, and is a New York-based graphic designer and typographer. Sagmeister co-founded a design ﬁrm called Sagmeister & Walsh Inc. with Jessica Walsh in New York City. He has designed album covers for Lou Reed, OK Go, The Rolling Stones, David Byrne, Jay Z, Aerosmith and Pat Metheny.
Stefan Sagmeister proceeded to form the New York based Sagmeister Inc. in 1993 and has since been creating different designs that involve branding, graphics, and packaging for clients as diverse as the Rolling Stones, HBO, the Guggenheim Museum and Time Warner. Sagmeister Inc. has employed designers including Martin Woodtli, and Hjalti Karlsson and Jan Wilker, who later formed Karlssonwilker, another well known and hugely successful company within the art world.
In addition, Sagmeister is a long-standing artistic collaborator with musicians David Byrne and Lou Reed. His passion for the music industry is shown in the many typographic designs he has created for the music industry as a whole. He is the author of the design monograph "Made You Look" which was published by Booth-Clibborn editions.
Solo shows on Sagmeister, Inc.'s work have been mounted in many places including; Vienna, New York, Berlin, Japan, Osaka, Prague, Cologne, and Seoul. Sagemeister also teaches in the graduate department of the School of Visual Arts in New York. His motto is "Design that needed guts from the creator and still carries the ghost of these guts in the ﬁnal execution."
Wim Crouwel was born 21 November 1928, and is a Dutch graphic designer, type designer, and typographer. Between 1947 and 1949, he studied Fine Arts at Academie Minerva in Groningen, the Netherlands. In addition, he studied typography at what is now the Gerrit Rietveld Academie in Amsterdam. In 1963, he was one of the founders of the design studio Total Design. From 1964 onwards, Crouwel was responsible for the design of the posters, catalogues and exhibitions of the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam. In 1967 he designed the successful typeface New Alphabet, a design that embraces the limitations of the cathode ray tube technology used by early data display screens and phototypesetting equipment, and therefore only containing horizontal and vertical strokes. Crouwel also designed other typefaces, such as Fodor and Gridnik. Additionally, In 1970 he designed the Dutch pavilion for Expo ’70.
Crouwel is known today as a remarkable and inspiring ﬁgure with a hugely innovative spirit and vision, always clearly displayed and distinguished. As a designer Crouwel related to many of the Bauhaus ideas, as well as the Swiss international style. He was extremely interested by the different rational aspects in the Bauhaus typography, which he was able to discover more in depthly through the works of both Karl Gerstner and Gerard Ifert. Similarly, it has been said that Crouwel’s work has always consisted of two key elements; the emotional aspect and the rational one. Unlike many of his time, Crouwel was fascinated by the ideas about serial and mass production, as he believed we need machines to help with valuable time of production, a statement that not many other designers, at the time, believed in until then. As a result of this, Crouwel was admired for his systematic approach and his creative handling of systematic approaches.
Josef Müller-Brockmann was born May 9, 1914 – August 30, and was a Swiss graphic designer and teacher. He began his artistic career through studying architecture, design and history of art at both the University and Kunstgewerbeschule in Zürich. Soon after in 1936, he opened his Zurich studio specializing in graphic design, exhibition design and photography. Brockmann then went onto producing concert posters for the Tonhalle in Zurich, and during this time he also became a founding editor of New Graphic Design. Typically Brockmann is recognized for his simple designs and extremely clean use of typography, shapes and colors that have continued to inspire many graphic designers even today, and will continue to do so. Similar to many of the graphic designers within the Swiss International Style, Muller-Brockmann was inﬂuenced by the ideas of many different design and art movements, which included Contructivism, De Stijl, Supermatism and the Bauhaus. Arguably, he is one of the most well-known Swiss designers, and his name is easily bought up and recognized when talking about the period. Some of his most famous work was done for the Zurich Town Hall as poster advertisements for their own theater productions. In addition to this, he also published several books, which provide an in-depth analysis of his work practices and philosophies, which is a great source of knowledge and foundation for young aspiring graphic designers who wish to go into the challenging profession. Moreover, towards the end of his life he spent most of his time working and teaching, when he then died in Zurich in 1996.
John Baskerville (28 January 1706 – 8 January 1775) was an English businessman, but he is best remembered as a printer and well known type designer.
Baskerville work was ﬁrst recognized when he started printing works for the University of Cambridge in 1758. His typefaces were greatly admired by Benjamin Franklin, a printer and fellow member of the Royal Society of Arts, who took the designs back to the United States, where they were adopted for most federal government publishing. Baskerville's work was often criticized by many jealous competitors, as his work was always ahead of his time, but since the 1920s many new fonts have been released by Linotype, Monotype, and other type foundries, showing his work and mainly called 'Baskerville'. In addition, Baskerville’s most notable typeface 'Baskerville' represents the differences of transitional type face and bridges a gap between Old and Modern type of typographic design and style.
Baskerville also was responsible for signiﬁcant innovations in printing, paper and ink production. He developed a new technique which produced a smoother whiter paper, allowing him to showcase his strong black type.
In addition to this, when initially composing his work Baskervile would often begin with displaying the importance of the blank space, which later became a huge inspiration for many Neo-classical typographers. He would remove anything that obstructs clarity, mainly working with ornaments and rules incredibly neatly, and always with large margins. Moreover, Baskervile is a typeface that portrays the character of a gentleman, elegance and clear design and its form is a huge contrast from the Continental typography of the Late Baroque Period.
There are many reasons why typography is so important and valuable in our soceity and day to day life. Typography attracts and holds the audience’s attention. When used correctly typography can often evoke a particular mood or feeling, due to the viewers needing to understand the important message you are trying to convey, having the right font and structural layout for that font, sets the tone for your piece or presentation before you have even begun. Similarly, using fonts that are both clean and easy to read are key to helping the viewers undertand and draw in initial attraction to your piece. In one study, researchers found that when good typography is used, people frown less and perform creative, cognitive tasks better afterwards. This therefore conveys the point to many graphic designers and creative designers in general, the true value of good typography in graphic design.
In addition, typography in graphic design can strongly affect how people react to a document. Good, careful selection and consistent use of a chosen typeface can be just as important as the use of graphics, color and images in creating and solidifying a professional brand. However, in order for typography to be used successfully in design, you must anticipate how the use of different fonts and styling will inﬂuence your audience, as well as affecting the readers emotions towards the piece.